Mycoses (Total 21235 Papers Found)

Sir: We report a rare case of iatrogenic sepsis in which the kinetics of procalcitonin (PCT) after injection of gram-negative bacteria are described for the first time. Since the original publication in The Lancet [1] there has been growing evidence that elevated PCT levels in the absence of hypercalcitoninemia are specific markers of the severity of the host response in patients with bacterial or fungal infection [2-4]. Rapid PCT increase within 2-4 h after intravenous endotoxin injection at a ...
In the experimental Candida albicans intravenous challenge model, the kidney is one of the main organs involved in disease. In progressive infection, fungal burdens are found to increase over time, with rapid increases occurring from 24 h postinfection. Renal transcriptional responses were analyzed at this time in the kidneys of mice infected by either a virulent or an attenuated C. albicans strain, allowing comparison of host responses in progressive and nonprogressive infection. The results of ...
Invasive fungal infections are frequent and severe complications in leukaemic patients with prolonged neutropaenia. Empirical antifungal therapy has become the standard of care in patients with persistent fever despite treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics. For decades amphotericin B deoxycholate has been the sole option for empirical antifungal therapy. Recently, several new antifungal agents became available. The choice of the most appropriate drug should be guided by efficacy and safety c ...
  • M. T. Lin, H. C. Lu, W. L. Chen,
  • Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 2001
Early detection of fungal infections in and corresponding early treatment of febrile patients with neutropenia and cancer have been important issues and continue to be major challenges for clinicians. The use of nested PCR to make therapeutic decisions was studied. Sequential blood samples obtained from 42 patients with neutropenia and cancer were tested by nested PCR and culture. Instead of the empirical antifungal therapy strategy, amphotericin B treatment was initiated only for patients who h ...
The effect of fungal infection on the reproductive potential of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, was evaluated as part of the full biocontrol potential of three entomopathogenic fungi by modeling of fecundity probability. Female mites (≤2-day-old) on leaves were exposed to the sprays of Beauveria bassiana, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus and Metarhizium anisopliae at the concentrations of 1.13 × 103, 1.55 × 103 and 0.95 × 103 deposited conidia mm−2 and then individually reare ...
UNLABELLED Water stress (WS) predisposes peanut plants to fungal infection resulting in pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination. Major changes during water stress including oxidative stress, lead to destruction of photosynthetic apparatus and other macromolecules within cells. Two peanut cultivars with diverse drought tolerance characteristics were subjected to WS, and their leaf proteome was compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis complemented with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Ninety-six ...
Of 83 patients who underwent 100 orthotopic liver transplantations, 53 had a single transplant procedure and at least 6 months of follow-up. In this main study group of 53 patients, major infections developed in 28 (53%) (a mean of 1.8 major episodes per infected patient). Of 51 major infections, 27 were bacterial, 19 were viral, 3 were protozoan, and 2 were fungal. Of the 27 bacterial infections, 22 (81%) occurred in the first 2 months after transplantation. Of the 40 bacterial isolates in the ...
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of caspofungin vs. liposomal amphotericin B in the treatment of suspected fungal infections in the UK. METHODS The cost-effectiveness of caspofungin vs. liposomal amphotericin B was evaluated using a decision-tree model. The decision tree was populated using both data and clinical definitions from published clinical studies. Model outcomes included success in terms of resolution of fever, baseline infection, absence of breakthrough infection, surviv ...
PURPOSE To evaluate the factors affecting treatment outcome of graft infection following penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). METHODS In this retrospective study, 28 patients who underwent PKP between January 2005 and January 2013 and who were diagnosed with graft infection were classified into a treatment success group or a treatment failure group. Demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as the results of the microbiologic investigation, were analyzed and compared. A subsequent binary lo ...
BACKGROUND The administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) increases the granulocyte count in normal donors and enables the collection of large numbers of mature myeloid cells by leukapheresis. This has potential value in the treatment of sepsis unresponsive to antibiotics in patients with severe neutropenia. AIM To evaluate the tolerability of granulocyte collections in normal donors receiving G-CSF, the optimal method of collection and the clinical factors influencing the ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of "Monthly infusion of cytomegalovirus immune globulin (CMVIG) decreases the incidence of bacterial and fungal infections in the first year following lung transplantation." by Martin R. Zamora et al. ...
Background The aim of the study was to assess the effect of early-onset neutropenia (EON) on the development of candidemia in premature infants and evaluate other risk factors. Materials and Methods This prospective study was carried out in a neonatal intensive care unit of Cairo University Hospital. Fifty neutropenic premature infants were matched to 50 non-neutropenics. Subjects were then regrouped into candidemics and non-candidemics to study other risk factors such as central venous cathet ...
Fungal infections of the orbit represent a small minority of orbital infections. However, due to the virulent nature of some of the fungal species, they can have a devastating effect on ocular functions. Most of these fungi are saprophytes, which cause opportunistic infections. Aspergillus is one such fungus that can cause infection at various sites in an immunosuppressed individual. Sinonasal aspergillus infection with orbital extension and orbital aspergillus infection progress relentlessly. T ...
Despite the widespread prophylactic use of antifungal agents in neutropenic patients, invasive fungal infections continue to emerge as major causes of morbidity and mortality. With the exception of fluconazole prophylaxis in allogeneic marrow transplant recipients, no firm conclusions can be drawn due to the lack of reliable, randomized trials. At the present time, it seems that antifungal chemoprophylaxis is more a matter of faith rather than science. Earlier diagnosis based on noninvasive diag ...
INTRODUCTION C. tropicalis and C. krusei have emerged as virulent species causing oral infections. Both have developed resistance to commonly prescribed azole antifungal agents. OBJECTIVE The study aimed to determine the effect of mouth rinses containing chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and their combination (CHX-CPC) on the growth of these strains. METHODS The minimal inhibition concentrations (MIC) of the mouth rinses were determined. The growth curves of the ...
BACKGROUND Onychomycosis is a common fungal infection of the toenails which has historically been regarded as a cosmetic problem. A previous study has suggested that this is not the case and that toenail and fingernail onychomycosis adversely impacts patient quality of life (QOL). METHODS A survey was used to self-assess the physical symptoms and psychosocial dimensions of toenail onychomycosis in 93 patients. Positive responses scored one point each, and points were summed for each patient. ...
Opportunistic oral fungal infections have spred, especially in denture wearers. Denture stomatitis is a common inflammatory reaction, multifactorial etiology, which is usually associated with Candida species, particularly Candida albicans, due to its high virulence, ability to adhere and form biofilms on oral cavity tissues and denture surfaces. This article highlights the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management strategies of Candida-associated denture stomatitis commonly encountered ...
The first case described in Mexico, was studied by Cícero in 1900 and 1911 Ocaranza, in Sonora, reports some cases, pointing out that the first known case dates back to 1874. In USA González Ochoa identifies the causative agent of the cases he studied, as the same identified in USA, but he calls attention to the fact that it has already been described under the name of Actinomyces brasiliensis, finally, taxonomically it is included among the nocardias. In Mexico the micetoma is caused in 90% o ...
The symptoms and physical findings of reflux laryngopharyngitis are characteristic, but the mucosal alterations evident in the larynx are not exclusive to reflux. When conventional reflux management produces an equivocal response, other etiologic factors such as mycotic laryngitis, need consideration. The differential diagnosis of dysphonia in an immunocompromised patient always includes mycotic infections, but mycotic laryngitis can also occur in the immunocompetent host. Laryngeal candidiasis ...
In order to assess the extent of dermal retention of amorolfine (MT-861), a new morpholine antifungal agent, cream preparations of MT-861 were applied to the skin on the back of guinea pigs and the protective effect was determined regarding the topical treatment on the development of infection induced by subsequent inoculation with conidia of Trichophyton mentagrophytes. One per cent bifonazole (BFZ) cream was used as the reference drug. The results are summarized as follows. 1. Pretreatment wit ...
Tinea capitis as well as tinea corporis in adults may occur under conditions of immunosuppression. If suspected clinically, direct microscopy and examination by culture is indispensable. Therapeutic intervention should start without delay. A proven fungal infection of scalp hairs warrants immediate initiation of systemic treatment. Hereby prevention of disfiguring hair loss, permanent formation of scar tissue, spread of fungal organisms to other cutaneous regions as well as infection of other pe ...
Cutaneous candidiasis is a common fungal infection that can affect intertriginous or occluded areas, mucous membranes, the glabrous skin, and the nails. The diagnosis is confirmed by microscopic examination of a potassium hydroxide preparation, by Gram's stain or Polysciences Multiple Stain, or by culture when appropriate. Safe, simple, and effective treatment is available. Physical measures that promote dryness are helpful. ...
Disseminated mucormycosis is a rare, mostly fatal infectious complication in immunocompromised haematological patients. The purpose of our study was to describe the multiorgan manifestations of disseminated mucormycosis documented at CT and MRI in four patients and correlate these with the pathological findings and patient outcome. Irrespective of the site of infection, infarction or haemorrhage are the constant features of invasive mycosis. Identification of one or both of these two major imagi ...
UV-B radiation (UVBR) is a small fraction of the solar spectrum from 280 to 315nm. UVBR produces photomorphogenic acclimation responses in plants, modulating their cellular structure and physiology. Here, changes in the peel of harvested lemons after short time exposure to UVBR were analyzed and its potential effects against fungal infection were studied. In the flavedo, UVBR treatment induced variations in the respiratory profiles and increased the phenolic compound contents. Final products of ...
Botrytis blight, caused by Botrytis cinerea infection, is the most significant fungal disease in Geraldton waxflower (Chamelaucium uncinatum). Paclobutrazol, a gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor, is often used with potted ornamental plants to control their growth and provide more compact plants. Paclobutrazol falls within a group of chemicals classed as triazoles,which have been recommended for use as both fungicides and plant growth regulators. It was, therefore, thought that paclobutrazol migh ...
Posaconazole has been proven to be as effective as fluconazole in the prevention of invasive fungal infections (IFI) in allogeneic haematopoietic SCT patients with GVHD. We assessed, from the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service, the cost-effectiveness of posaconazole vs fluconazole in preventing IFI. A decision-analytic model was developed to assess the average per patient treatment costs, IFIs avoided, life-years gained (LYG) and incremental cost per LYG for each prophylactic tre ...
An invasive sinusal mycosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency is reported. The clinical course and causal agent (Chrysosporium tropicum) were both rather atypical. This fungus has been seldom isolated as a cause of nasosinusal infections. Just one more case like this is found when literature is reviewed. We emphasize importance of early diagnosis and treatment to reduce morbi-mortality. ...
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) require rapid diagnosis and treatment. A decision-analytic model was used to estimate total costs and survival associated with a diagnostic-driven (DD) or an empiric treatment approach in neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies receiving chemotherapy or autologous/allogeneic stem cell transplants in Shanghai, Beijing, Chengdu, and Guangzhou, the People's Republic of China. Treatment initiation for the empiric approach occurred after clinical suspici ...
BACKGROUND The transfusion of G-CSf-primed granulocytes (GTX) might represent an important treatment option for neutropenia-related infections unresponsive to conventional antimicrobial therapies and to recombinant hematopoietic growth factors. However, few studies to date have identified the factors that can predict clinical outcome and the patient populations who are likely to benefit most from GTX. The primary endpoint of the present retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of GTX in ...
Primary invasive aspergillosis of the hand is an unusual manifestation of an opportunistic fungal infection that affects children who receive induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia. The surgeon should maintain a high index of suspicion when evaluating even the most innocuousappearing hand lesion in an immunocompromised patient. Early diagnosis, intravenous amphotericin B, and radical surgical debridement may prevent angioinvasion and subsequent fatal widespread dissemination. ...
Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic mycosis caused by Paracoccidioides species limited to Latin America arising with the chronic form in 90% of cases. The capacity of microorganisms to form biofilms is considered of great importance medical since can contribute to the persistence and to the chronic state of the diseases. The ability of Paracoccidioides to form biofilm has been demonstrated in vitro. In our study, for the first time we have observed this capability in vivo on a vascular prosthes ...
Dectin-1 is a membrane-bound pattern recognition receptor for β-glucans, which are the main constituents of fungal cell walls. Detection of β-glucans by dectin-1 triggers an effective innate immune response. In this study, we have used a systems biology approach to provide the first comprehensive characterization of the secretome and associated intracellular signaling pathways involved in activation of dectin-1/Syk in human macrophages. Transcriptome and secretome analysis revealed that the de ...
Twenty-eight neutropenic (< 500 granulocytes/microliters) adults with microbiologically or histologically proven systemic mycosis were randomly assigned to receive either amphotericin B alone (0.5 mg/kg/day; n = 14) or amphotericin B (0.5 mg/kg/day) plus 5-flucytosine (150 mg/kg/day; n = 14) intravenously. Therapy was given for an average duration of 10 days in both groups, amounting to a total dose of amphotericin B of 338 mg and 308 mg, respectively. The mean duration of granulocytopenia wa ...
Air sampling and surveillance cultures for fungi were performed in a Scottish general haematology ward over a five-month period in 1997. The mean total fungal count from the air sampling appeared to be correlated with the number of patients colonized by Aspergillus. The most commonly isolated species were Aspergillus versicolor, A. fumigatus and A. niger. Rooms with portable air filtration units had significantly lower total fungal counts than the others. Swabs were taken from 70 patients (mean ...
Febrile neutropenic patients who receive antibiotics are at risk for fungal infections. This risk increases greatly with the length and severity of neutropenia. Because diagnostic tests for fungal infections lack sensitivity and specificity and because established fungal infections are associated with poor outcomes, empiric antifungal therapy is frequently given to patients with fever that persists despite antibacterial therapy. Early trials of empiric amphotericin B showed reductions in the num ...
Tinea capitis remains a common infection among the pediatric population of North America. The ‘gray patch’ Microsporum audouinii infections of the 1950's have been supplanted by the ‘black dot’ ringworm of Trichophyton tonsurans. The clinical presentation of T. tonsurans infection is quite variable and may be related to specific host T-lymphocyte response. This dermatophytosis is most frequently incurred from contact with an infected child either directly or via a variety of fomites. Cur ...
Pilzbezoare im Nierenbecken sind eine ungewöhnliche Manifestation einer schweren Infektion durch Candida albicans. Wir beschreiben ein reifes Neugeborenes mit VACTERL-Assoziation, das nach einer Candidasepsis Pilzbezoare im Nierenbecken entwickelte, die zu einer Hydronephrose mit beginnendem postrenalem Nierenversagen führten. Unter antimykotischer Therapie mit Amphotericin B und Fluzytosin sowie direkter Spülung mit Amphotericin B nach perkutaner Nephrostomie kam es zur Normalisierung der A ...
In t roduc t ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 Maduromycosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 Superficial Mycoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 Actinomycosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 Candidiasis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 Rhinosporidiosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 Blastomycosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 Sp ...
Extranodal natural killer T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKL), formerly called lethal midline granuloma or angiocentric T-cell lymphoma, is a predominantly extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by vascular damage, necrosis, and an association with Epstein-Barr virus. In the United States, it is more frequently seen in Asian, Asian Pacific Islander, and Hispanic descent populations and is more prevalent in males in their fifth decade. Clinical presentation of NK nasal lymphoma most commonl ...